www.turner-white.com Gastroenterology Volume 14, Part 3 15
rectal ulcer syndrome. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol
25. Ederle A, Bulighin G, Orlandin PG, Pilati S. Endoscopic
application of human fibrin sealant in the treatment of
solitary rectal ulcer syndrome [letter]. Endoscopy 1992;24:
26. Jarrett ME, Emmanuel AV, Vaizey CJ, Kamm MA. Behavioural therapy (biofeedback) for solitary rectal ulcer syndrome improves symptoms and mucosal blood flow. Gut
27. Tweedie DJ, Varma JS. Long-term outcome of laparo-scopic mesh rectopexy for solitary rectal ulcer syndrome.
Colorectal Dis 2005;7:151–5.
28. Rao SS. Diagnosis and management of fecal incontinence.
American College of Gastroenterology Practice Parameters Committee. Am J Gastrenterol 2004;99:1585–604.
29. Rao SS, Patel RS. How useful are manometric tests of
anorectal function in the management of defecation disorders? Am J Gastroenterol 1997;92:469–75.
30. Rao SS. Pathophysiology of adult fecal incontinence. Gastroenterology 2004;126( 1 Suppl 1):S14–22.
31. Deutekom M, Dobben AC, Terra MP, et al. Clinical presentation of fecal incontinence and anorectal function: what is
the relationship? Am J Gastroenterol 2007;102:351–61.
32. Wald A. Con: anorectal manometry and imaging are not
necessary in patients with fecal incontinence. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101:2681–3.
33. Bharucha AE. Pro: anorectal testing is useful in fecal incontinence. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101:2679–81.
34. Tuteja AK, Rao SS. Review article: recent trends in diagnosis and treatment of faecal incontinence. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004;19:829–40.
35. Terra MP, Beets-Tan RG, van der Hulst VP, et al. MRI
in evaluating atrophy of the external anal sphincter in
patients with fecal incontinence. AJR Am J Roentgenol
36. Sun WM, Read NW, Verlinden M. Effects of loperamide
oxide on gastrointestinal transit time and anorectal function in patients with chronic diarrhoea and faecal incontinence. Scan J Gastroenterol 1997;32:34–8.
37. Harford WV, Krejs GJ, Santa Ana CA, Fordtran JS. Acute
effect of diphenoxylate with atropine (Lomotil) in patients
with chronic diarrhea and fecal incontinence. Gastroenterol
38. Remes-Troche JM, Ozturk R, Philips C, et al. Cholesteryra-
mine—a useful adjunct for the treatment of patients with
fecal incontinence. Int J Colorectal Dis 2008;23:189–99.
39. Rao SS. The technical aspects of biofeedback therapy for
defecation disorders. Gastroenterologist 1998;6:96–103.
40. Rao SS, Welcher KD, Happel J. Can biofeedback therapy
improve anorectal function in fecal incontinence? Am J
Gastroenterol 1966;91:2360– 6.
41. Byrne CM, Solomon MJ, Young JM, et al. Biofeedback for
fecal incontinence: short-term outcomes of 513 consecutive patients and predictors of successful treatment. Dis
Colon Rectum 2007;50:417–27.
42. Norton C, Chelvanayagam S, Wilson-Barnett J, et al.
Randomized controlled trial of biofeedback for fecal incontinence. Gastroenteroloy 2003;125:1320– 9.
43. Heymen S, Whitehead W. EMG biofeedback vs. Kegel
exercise for the treatment of fecal incontinence. Gastroenterology 2007;132:A–83.
44. Pager CK, Solomon MJ, Rex J, Roberts RA. Long-term
outcomes of pelvic floor exercise and biofeedback treatment for patients with fecal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum 2002;45:997–1003.
45. Ozturk R, Niazi S, Stessman M, Rao SS. Long-term and
objective changes of anorectal function after biofeedback
therapy for faecal incontinence. Aliment Pharmacol Ther
46. Byrne CM, Solomon MJ, Rex J, et al. Telephone vs. face-to-face biofeedback for fecal incontinence: comparison
of two techniques in 239 patients. Dis Colon Rectum
47. Zorcolo L, Covotta L, Bartolo DC. Outcome of anterior
sphincter repair for obstetric injury: comparison of early
and late results. Dis Colon Rectum 2005;48:524–31.
48. Madoff RD. Surgical treatment options for fecal incontinence. Gastroenterology 2004;126( 1 Suppl 1)S48–54.
49. Thornton MJ, Kennedy ML, Lubowski DZ, King DW. Long-term follow-up of dynamic graciloplasty for faecal incontinence. Colorectal Dis 2004;6:470– 6.
50. Leroi AM, Parc Y, Lehur PA, et al. Efficacy of sacral nerve
stimulation for fecal incontinence: results of a multicenter
double-blind crossover study. Ann Surg 2005;242:662–9.
51. Vaizey CJ, Kamm MA, Nicholls RJ. Double-blind crossover
study of sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence. Dis
Colon Rectum 2000;43:298–302.
52. Graf W, Mellgren A, Matzel KE, et al. . Efficacy of dextranomer in stabilised hyaluronic acid for treatment of faecal
incontinence: a randomised, sham-controlled trial. Lancet;